Vaccines: Antibodies + Antigens

  • What are Vaccines
  • Antibodies + Antigens
  • Synthetic processes for Antibodies (Hyperdoma + Phage image)

What are Vaccines?

Antibodies and Antigens




  • Antibodies are secreted into the blood and mucosa, where they bind to and activate foreign substances such as pathogens and toxins (neutralization)
  • Antibodies activate the complement system to destroy bacterial cells by lysis (punching holes in the cell wall)
  • Antibodies facilitate phagocytosis of foreign substances by phagocytic cells (opsonization)

Synthetic Processes


  1. Injecting the host with the antigen
  2. Extracting different spleen cells
  3. Fusing spleen cells with the myeloma cells (hybridomas)
  4. Harvesting antigen-specific cells, and replicating

Phage Imaging

  1. Find a phage antibody library
  2. Use the pathogen to find a suitable receptor in the library
  3. Then take the genes from the antibody phage, and create cellular factories (often bacteria cells) to mass-produce the needed antibody drug.
  • Vaccines are actually versions of the pathogen that we are trying to get rid of, and we use these versions to trigger an immune response in the body, which will help generate the needed antibodies.
  • Antibodies are produced by B cells that are found in lymphatic tissues, originally from the bone marrow. They help fight off antigens in the body.
  • Hybridoma and Phage Imaging are processes that allow researchers to create monoclonal antibodies, which in turn helps create a drug for vaccination purposes.




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Valmik Rao

Valmik Rao

Just a 16-year-old trying to solve the world’s biggest problems…

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