Future of iPSC

Yamanaka Factors

1) Oncogenic Transformation

  • Oct-4 is an octamer binding transcription factor that is expressed in undifferentiated cells, that deals with the self-renewal property of stem cells.
  • Sox2 is a sex-determining region Y box 2, which means that it is a transcription factor that also deals with self-renewal but also pluripotency.
  • KLF4 is a kruppel-like factor, which is a transcription factor that deals with proliferation and differentiation traits in stem cells.
  • C-Myc is part of a family of regulatory genes, this transcription factor is also expressed in cancer for its proliferation ability..

2) Efficiency

What is Deterministic Reprogramming?

  • Gatad2a is a gene that facilitates the deterministic reprogramming methods like the disruption of the Mbd3 gene that allows the ESC to remain in its pluripotency state
  • Mbd3/NuRD complex is the gene that turns off the pluripotency state in ESC, in order for them to differentiate into different types of somatic cells
  • OKSM is the Yamanaka factors that are used to create the pluripotency in these somatic cells

Retrovirus with infected β cells





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Valmik Rao

Valmik Rao

Just a 16-year-old trying to solve the world’s biggest problems…

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